Copyright © 2001 by Romain Lerallut
|Revision v0.05||11 January 2002||Revised by: rml|
|Applies D-Man's patch for typos and some vim stuff.|
|Revision v0.04||30 May 2001||Revised by: rml|
|Changes in the title page.|
|Revision v0.03||24 May 2001||Revised by: RL|
|One more tip, and the FDL License. VI Rules ever more!!|
|Revision v0.02||23 February 2001||Revised by: RL|
|Application of Tom Huckstep's patch and slight modifs. VI Rules even more!!|
|Revision v0.01||11 January 2001||Revised by: RL|
|First draft of the SGML-based version. VI Rules!!|
VI is one of the most used text editors in the UNIX world. It is found on most (if not all) UNIX workstations, and not only on Linux ones , contrary to most other text editors.
It is very powerful, which means it can be hard to do simple things, BUT it also means that complicated thing are equally hard to do. So if you manage to understand how VI works for simple things, you can quickly move on to very advanced text editing.
[Besides, it looks awfully cool to edit text in vi, rather than in emacs or other text editors that actually display command keys, or even have menus :-)]
I wish to extend my thanks to the all the doc writers of the NewbieDoc Project, and to those who submitted patches to make this doc better (most notably DMan whose patch staid there, forgotten, for quite some time...). And also to Tom Huckstep for his SGML templates and detailed howto, his patch(es ?) and of course to Will Trillich for starting this whole thing.
You can start vi by typing vi alone (that wasn't hard to figure out, was it ?),
or you can specify a filename: vi hop.txt
In this case, either:
the file exists already and you open it for edition
the file doesn't exist and vi starts a new file with that name
Written for Xucaen and all the ones who ever got stuck in the vi quicksands :-)
Sometimes people start vi "just to see what it looks like" and can't find how to getout !!
To quit vi, press ESC at least once to quit whichever mode you're in (the box should 'beep') and type :q for normal quit. [Don't forget the : !!]
write and quit :wq (aka :x)
force quitting :q! quits VI even if the file was not saved ( it is most useful when editing a read-only buffer, eg: forgetting to su root before editing a /etc/xxxx.conf file. Happens to me all the time :-)
There are two main modes in VI: command and insert. To that we can add the "ex" mode, called up with ":". Cursor mode is the default mode when starting vi, it's also the top-level mode. To go back to it when in any other mode, press ESC a few times (once is actually enough for most command modes).
There are tons of ways to move the cursor around, so I'll just give the basic ones:
Normal motion: cursor keys, (which are emulated by h,j,k,l if the terminal (or the currrent keymap) doesn't support cursor keys)
Line motion: ^ go to the first non blank character in current line, $ last character in current line
gg go to beginning of file Goto: G go to end of file, xxG go to line xx
In order to repeat a command several times, you may specify the number of repeats and then the command.(eg: 10h will move the cursor 10 characters to the left)
Now that you can move the cursor around, let's see how you can type text:
When in insert mode, you can delete only the text you've just insered.To delete other parts of the file, get out of insert mode (ESC) and go toDeleting Text
If you add the following command to your ~/.vimrc or type it while running vim you will be able to backspace through the entire buffer, not just the text entered during the current "input session". :set backspace=2
When you delete text that has just been inserted, see that the letters aren't erased from the screen. Instead the cursor just moves backwards and what you type will overwrite what you had "deleted". Just get used to it.
This occured in original vi, and apparently in some modern clones (it was probably originally due to lack of processing power). In vim this isn't a problem -- all the characters you delete will disappear immediately, except perhaps when being used over a slow dialup line, but then the problem is the dialup line and not vi(m).
Most common insertion commands, all the following commands will get you in insert mode, but in different ways:
Appending (a): insert text after current cursor position
Inserting (i): insert text before current cursor position
Open New Line (o): open new line below current line and insert
All those commands have their counterparts in capital letters:
Appending at end of line (A): insert text after last character on the line
Inserting at beginning of line (I): insert text before first non blanck character on the line
Open New Line (O): open new line above current line and insert
N.B.: insertion (as well as most commands) can be combined with a "multiplier", in the same way than cursor commands:
10a(type your text...) will repeat 10 times the command a. So vi will append the text you've just typed in ten times.
The delete command, as many others can be mixed with cursor commands, so that all text is deleted between the current cursor position and the new cursor position.
Deleting a character (x or X): deletes the character under (x) or before (X) the current cursor position
Deleting a word (dw or db): deletes word after (dw) or before (db) cursor
Deleting half a line (d^ or d$): deletes from the beginning of the line to the current cursor's position (d^) or from the cursor's position to the end of the line (d$)
Deleting a line (dd): deletes current line
Deletion can be combined with a "multiplier", in the same way as cursor commands: 10dd will delete 10 lines
Deleted text will be stored in the 'yank' buffer, replacing the previous one. (see Yanking and Pasting)
Copy and paste in vi is very powerful. We'll concentrate on single-buffer yanking, but be informed that, just like emacs, you can copy text into many buffers, although it is not automated.
Yanking text means 'copy'. The corresponding command is y and its syntax is exactly that same as delete's:
Yanking a word (yw or yb): yanks word after (yw) or before (yb) cursor
Yanking half a line (y^ or y$): yanks line from the current cursor position to the first non-blank character on the line (y^) or from current to the end of line (y$)
Yanking a line (yy): yanks current line
WARNING: entering insert mode will erase the yank buffer.
Vim doesn't erase the yank buffer when you enter insert mode.
There is only one pasting command: p , which means paste text in yank buffer after current cursor position.There is also its counterpart P for pasting before cursor.
Sometimes you need to do things to the whole buffer. Instead of moving to the top, and then doing a dG to delete everything,you can issue global commands, based on line numbers:
Searching text is done with the command /xxx for a forwards search or ?yyy for a backwards search. n will skip to the next occurrence.When specifying / without argument vi will default to the argument of the last search.
Global Search and Replace:
The magic command is
The /g is optional, it means 'do the replace everytime'.If not specified, vi will replace only the first occurrence in each line.
Special ^XX characters
To search for a ^XX character, you must use Ctrl-v (^v) in order to disable interpretation of the Ctrl commands.
A useful example:
Windows (MS-DOS) text files use RETURN/LINEFEED to end every line; Mac uses only RETURN; and Unix/Linux uses only NEWLINE (which is the same as the linefeed in DOS). To use the linux programming style:
\r\n = chr(13)chr(10) = MS-DOS
\r = chr(13) = Mac
\n = chr(10) = Linux/Unix
So when displaying an msdos ascii file with vi (or with any other text editor), you will find each and every line ended by a ^M (it's character 13, aka \r, aka ENTER). When displaying a mac ascii file, you will have a single line with a ^M at what should be each end of line.
Our MSDOS text file should look like this:
Friday the 13th^M ^M ^M ^M Dear Sir,^M ^M ....
And our mac text file should look like that
"Friday the 13th^M^M^MDearSir,^M^M...."
[The Macintosh->Unix conversion isn't easy to do with vi macros, so we'll concentrate on msdos/windows->Unix]
MS-DOS/Windows -> UNIX conversion:
In order to remove these ugly ^M, you search for them and replace them by....nothing!
So first, let's search for those weird ^M ... but, how can you search for character 'ENTER'?
By preceeding it with ^V (Control-V). Any keystroke after ^V is accepted literally -- that is, it won't have its usual command function, if it's something like ESC, ENTER, ^Z, etc...
What the following command tells VI to do is to replace the first (since the /g option isn't set, but anyway, we only expect one) ^M on every line, with nothing (there is nothing between the last two slashes: //):
This is what you type
(where ^V is Control-V, and ^M is ENTER or Control-M)
note that VI doesn't display the ^V, so you'll only see
This what you actually see
And it should work...
[FYI the "text-edition task force" is working on an elegant way to convert mac ascii files to unix, but the first research campaign hasn't brought us much]
Undo: u to undo last command.
Inserting a file: :read file_name will insert file after current line. As a shortcut only :r file_name needs to be typed.
Info about current file: Ctrl-g will display info about the current file
Redraw screen: Ctrl-l will redraw the screen if it gets cluttered for some reason. This can happen, for example, if you are using vi over a poor quality dialup connection or you have a broken terminal emulator (such using Windows telnet).
Line numbers: :set nu to display line numbers and :set nonu to not display them.
To paste text without problems: :set paste
Useful Stuff For Writing Code or Newbiedoc HOW-TOs
:set expandtab softtabstop=4 shiftwidth=4
Get Additional Information About A Command :help <command> Will display the on-line help document for the specified command. If no command is given, then the Table Of Contents is displayed.